In the Ottoman Period, in the 16th and 17th centuries, mihrabs, minbar, muezzin mahfilleri, preacher, and maxis were added to the Hagia Sophia. Bronze oil lamps on both sides of the mihrab were given to the mosque by Kanuni Sultan S¸leyman (1520-1566) on his return from the Expedition to the Buddhist (1526). The two marble cubes belonging to the Hellenistic Period (4th - 3rd century BC) in the left and right corners of the entrance to the main site were brought from Bergama and the Sultan III. Murad (1574-1595) was a gift to Hagia Sophia. Between 1847 and 1849, during the reign of Sultan Abd¸lmecid in the Hagia Sophia, the Swiss Fossati Brothers had an extensive repair. During the repair works, the Sultan's Palace in the niche in the north of the altar was removed, instead of the left side of the altar, rising above the pillars, surrounded by wooden gilded guardians of the Sultan's Palace was made.

In the same period, the calligrapher Kad˝asker wrote 7.5 m. By Mustafa ızzet Efendi. 8 lines of diameter were placed on the walls of the main room. Hz Allah, Hz. Muhammad, Hz. Ebubekir, Hz. Omar, Hz. Osman, Hz. Ali, Hz. Hasan and Hz. H¸seyin olarak these plates are known as the biggest line plates of the Islamic world. In the middle of the same calligrapher dome, he wrote verse 35 of Surat an-Nur.